Robbins, Millett and Waters-Marsh (2004, p. 369) defines
Transformational Leadership as a build upon a strong foundation of “Transactional Leadership” which is, “guiding
or motivating their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement.” Transformational
Leaders are more amazing in the sense that they are able to, “inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests
and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.”
Transformational Leadership is regarded by Davidson and Griffin
(2003, p. 585) as, “a reliable reflection of the full range of leadership behaviour and is a valid predictor of effective
leadership outcomes.” They believe the effectiveness of a transformational leader is due to the several traits they
Leadership – “idealized influence,” the leader is seen as a role model and are admired, respected and trusted
Motivation – Displaying optimism and creating enthusiasm by articulating their visions and communicating their expectations
to their followers effectively
Stimulation – Stimulate their followers by encouraging them to think outside the box and to question assumptions. Creativity
is praised and no ideas are publicly criticized or ridiculed
Reward – A motivational theory that is applied to achieve results. A leader and follower communicate their expectations
of what another in terms of what rewards will be gained for the work done.
by Exception – This is a corrective measure taken by leaders when they feel they need to intervene and manage a situation
in order to achieve a desired outcome. The manager can step in when an exception to the desired outcome occurs or they can
actively monitor errors and mistakes consistently.
(Davidson & Griffin, 2003, p.585)
Dubrin, Daglish and Miller (2006, p. 104) believes that in
the case of transformational leadership, emphasis is placed upon the leader’s accomplishments rather than their personal
characteristics. They add that these transformations take place through the following seven steps:
1. Raising People’s Awareness – Communicating
the importance of their work and the rewards that will be achieved and how to obtain those awards.
2. Helping People Look Beyond Self-Interest – Asks
people to look at the “bigger picture” and to consider how the team, organisation and community may benefit rather
than their own personal gain.
3. Helping People Search for Self-Fulfillment – A transformational
leader will help their followers look beyond minor satisfactions
4. Helping People Understand the Need for Change –
In order for a success, a transformational must help their followers understand why change is necessary. Team members must
be given the emotional and intellectual aid necessary fpr a successful transition
5. Investing Managers with a Sense of Urgency – Transformations
are achieved by creating a skilled team of managers who share the same vision as the leader and are able to appreciate the
urgency of change and help facilitate it
6. Committing to Greatness – Leaders must adopt this
attitude and exude it in order to ennoble human nature and strengthen society. 7. Adopting a Long-Range
Perspective and at the Same Time Observing Organisational Issues from a Broad Rather then a Narrow Perspective – Having
a future and optimistic way of thinking has a positive effect and will encourage followers to also do so (Dubrin, Daglish
and Miller, 2006, pp. 104-108).